英国布莱顿论文代写:文化制裁

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通常,经济制裁与国家之间的条约或其他外交协议有关。它们可以撤销优惠待遇,例如最惠国待遇或对不遵守商定的国际贸易规则的国家的进口配额。由于政治或军事原因,也可能实施制裁以隔离一个国家。例如,美国对该国发展核武器的努力采取了严厉的经济惩罚措施,而美国也没有维持外交关系。制裁并不总是经济性的。卡特总统1980年对莫斯科奥运会的抵制可以被视为一种外交和文化制裁,以抗议苏联入侵阿富汗。俄罗斯于1984年进行了报复,引发了对洛杉矶夏季奥运会的多联合抵制。虽然制裁已经成为各国的共同外交工具,特别是在冷战结束后的几十年里,政治科学家说它们并不是特别有效。根据一项具有里程碑意义的研究,制裁只有大约30%的成功机会。随着目标国家或个人学习如何解决这些制裁的时间越长,制裁就越有效。

英国布莱顿论文代写:文化制裁

Often, economic sanctions are related to treaties or other diplomatic agreements between states. They can revoke preferential treatment, such as MFN status or import quotas for countries that do not comply with agreed international trade rules. For political or military reasons, sanctions may also be imposed to isolate a country. For example, the United States has adopted severe economic penalties for its efforts to develop nuclear weapons, and the United States has not maintained diplomatic relations. Sanctions are not always economic. President Carter’s 1980 boycott of the Moscow Olympics could be seen as a diplomatic and cultural sanction to protest the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Russia retaliated in 1984, triggering a multi-boycott of the Los Angeles Summer Olympics. Although sanctions have become a common diplomatic tool for nations, especially in the decades after the end of the Cold War, political scientists say they are not particularly effective. According to a landmark study, sanctions have only about 30% chance of success. The longer the target country or individual learns how to resolve these sanctions, the more effective the sanctions will be.

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