西格蒙德·弗洛伊德是心理学界最知名的人物之一。尽管现代研究人员认为他的工作有很大缺陷，而且往往完全不正确，但弗洛伊德为该领域的重要研究奠定了很多基础。弗洛伊德以其性写作着作闻名遐迩，特别是他关于压抑性欲的观点，这些观点在他关于悖论的工作中发挥了作用。弗洛伊德在1901年出版的着作“日常生活的精神病理学”一书中首次深入探讨弗洛伊德学派的故事。弗洛伊德在书中描述了一个女人对一个特定男人的态度如何随着时间的推移从冷漠变为温暖的解释。 “我真的从来没有反对过他，”他回忆说。 “我从来没有给他机会来认识我的熟人。”当弗洛伊德后来发现男人和女人开始恋爱关系时，弗洛伊德决定这个女人意味着要“培养”，但她的潜意识告诉她“迷人”，结果是“杯状”。弗洛伊德在1925年出版的“自传研究”一书中再次阐述了这一现象。他写道：“这些现象不是偶然的，它们需要的不仅仅是生理学上的解释，它们有意义并且可以被解释，并且从它们中推断存在受抑制或压抑的冲动和意图是合理的。”弗洛伊德得出的结论是，这些漏洞是进入潜意识的窗口，认为当某人说了一些他们不想说的话时，他们有时会被揭露出压抑的秘密。
Sigmund Freud is one of the most recognizable names in psychology. While modern researchers agree that his work was deeply flawed and often entirely incorrect, Freud laid much of the groundwork for key research in the field. Freud is well-known for his writings on sexuality, particularly his ideas about repressed sexual urges, which play a role in his work on parapraxis. His first deep-dive into the Freudian slip appeared in his book The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, published in 1901. In the book, Freud described a woman’s explanation of how her attitude towards a particular man changed from indifferent to warm over time. “I really never had anything against him,” he recalled her saying. “I never gave him the chance to cuptivate my acquaintance.” When Freud found out later that the man and woman began a romantic relationship, Freud determined that the woman meant to say “cultivate,” but her subconscious told her “captivate,” and “cuptivate” was the result. Freud elaborated on the phenomenon again in his 1925 book An Autobiographical Study. “These phenomena are not accidental, that they require more than physiological explanations,” he wrote. “They have a meaning and can be interpreted, and that one is justified in inferring from them the presence of restrained or repressed impulses and intentions.” Freud concluded that these slip-ups acted as windows into the subconscious, arguing that when someone said something they did not mean to say, their repressed secrets could sometimes be uncovered.
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