Michael Shapiro, director of the US Environmental Protection Agency’s Solid Waste Office, also evaluated the benefits of recycling: “A well-functioning roadside recycling program can cost anywhere from $50 to $150… garbage collection and Disposal plans, on the other hand, cost from $70 to $200 per ton. This suggests that recycling may be cost-effective, although there is room for improvement. “But in 2002, New York City’s early municipal recycling pioneers discovered it. The award-winning recycling program is losing money, so it cancels glass and plastic recycling. Mayor Michael Bloomberg said the benefits of recycling plastics and glass far outweighed the cost of recycling. At the same time, despite the best intentions, the low demand for materials means that most of the materials will eventually be landfilled. Other major cities are keeping a close eye on how New York City is ready to embrace the trend through its downsizing plan (the city has never stopped paper recycling). At the same time, however, New York City closed its last landfill, and private landfills increased their prices due to the increased workload of towing and disposing of New York garbage. As a result, the benefits of recycling glass and plastics have increased, and glass and plastic recycling has once again become the economic viability of the city. New York has correspondingly restored its recycling program, providing a more efficient system and more reputable service providers than previously used.