Home / 未分类 / 英国华威大学社会学Assignment代写:种族社会学

要说种族在很大程度上是由政治斗争决定的,就是要认识到种族和种族类别的定义随着时间的推移如何随着政治地形的变化而变化。例如,在美国的背景下,在国家建立和奴役时代,“黑色”的定义的前提是认为非洲和土生土长的奴隶是危险的畜生 – 野蛮,失控的人需要为了自己的利益而控制,并为了周围人的安全。以这种方式定义“黑人”通过为奴役辩护来为拥有财产的白人阶级的政治利益服务。这最终有利于奴隶主和所有其他从奴隶劳动经济中获利并从中受益的人的经济利益。相比之下,美国早期的白人废奴主义者反驳了这种黑暗的定义,而另一种说法则认为,与动物主义的野蛮人相比,黑人奴隶是值得自由的人类。正如社会学家乔恩·克鲁兹(Jon D. Cruz)在他的着作“边缘文化”中所记载的那样,基督教废奴主义者特别认为灵魂在通过歌唱奴隶歌曲和赞美诗所表达的情感中是可感知的,这是人性的证明。黑奴。他们认为这表明奴隶应该被释放。这种种族定义是北方反对南方分裂战争的政治和经济项目的意识形态理由。在今天的背景下,人们可以观察到类似的政治冲突在当代的竞争性黑人定义中发挥作用。 Black Harvard学生通过一个题为“I,Too,Am Harvard”的摄影项目,在常春藤联盟机构宣称自己的所有权,这表明了这一点。在线系列肖像画中,哈佛大学的黑人学生在他们的身体标志着他们的种族主义问题和假设之前,他们常常针对他们,以及他们对这些问题的反应。这些图像展示了在“常春藤联盟”背景下,“黑色”意味着如何发生冲突。一些学生摒弃了所有黑人女性都知道如何扭曲的假设,而另一些学生则认为他们有能力阅读和在校园里有知识分子。从本质上讲,学生们反驳了这样一种观念,即黑度只是刻板印象的复合体,并且这样做会使“黑色”的主流定义复杂化。从政治上讲,当代对“黑色”作为种族范畴的刻板印象定义会产生意识形态。支持将黑人学生排除在精英高等教育空间内并将其边缘化的工作。这有助于将它们保存为白色空间,从而保留和再现白色特权和白色控制社会中权利和资源的分配。另一方面,照片项目提出的黑暗定义断言黑人学生在精英高等教育机构中的归属,并声称他们有权获得与他人相同的权利和资源。这种定义种族类别及其含义的当代斗争体现了Omi和Winant对种族的定义,即不稳定,不断变化和政治争议。


To say that race is largely determined by political struggle is to recognize how the definition of racial and racial categories changes over time as political terrain changes. For example, in the context of the United States, in the era of state establishment and slavery, the definition of “black” was based on the assumption that African and native slaves were dangerous beasts – barbaric, out of control who needed to control for their own benefit and for the surroundings Human safety. In this way, the definition of “black people” serves the political interests of the white class that owns property by defending slavery. This ultimately benefits the economic interests of the slave owner and all others who benefit from and benefit from the slave labor economy. In contrast, the early white abolitionists in the United States refuted this dark definition, while the other argued that black slaves are worthy of freedom compared to animalistic barbarians. As sociologist Jon D. Cruz wrote in his book “Marginal Culture,” Christian abolitionists especially believe that the soul is in the emotions expressed by singing slave songs and hymns. Perceived, this is proof of human nature. Black slave. They think this shows that slaves should be released. This racial definition is the ideological reason for the political and economic projects of the North against the split war in the South. In today’s context, one can observe that similar political conflicts play a role in the definition of contemporary competitive blacks. Black Harvard students claim their ownership at the Ivy League agency through a photography project entitled “I, Too, Am Harvard”, which shows this. In the online series of portraits, Harvard black students often target them and their reactions to these issues before their bodies mark their racist issues and assumptions. These images show how “black” means conflict in the “Ivy League” context. Some students abandon the assumption that all black women know how to distort, while others think they have the ability to read and have intellectuals on campus. In essence, the students refute the notion that blackness is only a complex of stereotypes, and doing so complicates the mainstream definition of “black”. Politically speaking, contemporary stereotypes of “black” as a racial category will produce ideology. Support the work of excluding black students from the elite higher education space and marginalizing them. This helps preserve them as white spaces, preserving and reproducing the distribution of rights and resources in white privilege and white-controlled society. On the other hand, the dark definition proposed by the photo project asserts that black students belong to elite higher education institutions and claims that they have the right to the same rights and resources as others. This contemporary struggle to define racial categories and their meanings reflects Omi and Winant’s definition of race, namely instability, constant change and political controversy.


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