Ben Crystal是Shakespeare on Toast（由Icon Books出版）的作者，这本新书消除了莎士比亚难以捉摸的神话。在这里，他分享了他对表演莎士比亚的看法，并揭示了他对首次演员的最佳提示。 Ben Crystal：嗯，是的……所以它应该是！这些戏剧已有400多年的历史。它们包含文化噱头和对我们来说完全模糊的参考文献。但是他们也难以表演，因为莎士比亚善于擅长进入人的心脏 – 所以，作为一个演员，你不能让自己忍住。如果你不能深入到灵魂的深处，探索自己的极端，去奥赛罗或麦克白这个坏地方，那么你就不应该在舞台上。你必须把莎士比亚的重要演讲想象成这个角色曾经说过的最重要的事情;他们需要在胸部切开，心脏裸露，充满激情的情况下说话。你需要撕掉天空中的文字。如果你觉得自己在完成马拉松比赛后感觉不舒服，那么你做得并不好。向这样的观众敞开心扉需要勇气，让他们看到你的内心而不是拼命地向他们展示 – 这需要练习。 About.com：你对第一次表演莎士比亚的人有什么建议？ Ben Crystal：不要轻易对待它，但也不要太认真对待它。我知道这听起来像是一个矛盾，但它类似于必须在一个大空间中如实行事的概念，许多演员都在努力。这是一个棘手的平衡，莎士比亚要求你处理这些巨大的想法和情感，这往往会导致你“过度演绎” – 远离大手势和过分的特征。您需要知道的很多内容已经在页面上了。所以它很棘手，你必须努力工作，但它也是世界上最好玩的。好好享受。很好地了解你的生产线你可以跑步或者在说话时洗碗。只有一旦他们成为你的一员，你才能开始玩。很多人对莎士比亚戏剧的态度太过严肃，忘了这个重要的词：“玩”。这是一场比赛，所以尽情享受吧！如果你想要记住你的台词，你不能与你的演员“玩”。 About.com：莎士比亚在文本中留下了演员的线索吗？ Ben Crystal：是的，我想是的。彼得·霍尔，帕特里克·塔克以及其他一些人也是如此。他是否真的这样做总是会引起争论。回到像First Folio这样的原始文本会有所帮助。这是莎士比亚戏剧的第一部收藏版，由两位主要演员编辑。他们本来想创建一本关于如何表演同事戏剧的书，而不是如何阅读它们 – 80％的伊丽莎白女王无法阅读！因此，First Folio尽可能接近莎士比亚的预期剧本。当戏剧的现代编辑正在制作新版本时，他们会回到第一对开，删除大写字母，更改拼写并在人物之间切换演讲，因为他们从文学的角度看戏剧，而不是戏剧性的观点。考虑到莎士比亚的公司每天都会表演新剧，他们根本没有多少时间进行排练。因此，该理论认为，大部分阶段方向都写入了文本。事实上，从文本中可以找出站立的地方，说话的速度，以及你的角色的心态。 About.com：在表演之前理解抑扬格五音符有多重要？ Ben Crystal：这取决于你尊重你正在与之合作的作家。大多数莎士比亚戏剧都是用那种特殊的节奏风格写成的，所以忽略它就是愚蠢的。 Iambic pentameter是我们英语和我们身体的节奏 – 这一诗集与我们的心跳具有相同的节奏。一条抑扬五音的线条完美地填满了人的肺，所以这是演讲的节奏。人们可以说这是一种非常人性化的节奏，莎士比亚用它来探索它是什么样的人类。在一个略微不那么抽象的音符中，抑扬音五音是一系列有十个音节的诗歌，而所有偶数音节都有一个稍微强一些的音节。这本身就是一个方向 – 强烈的压力通常落在重要的话语上。
Ben Crystal is the author of Shakespeare on Toast (published by Icon Books), a new book that dispels the myth that Shakespeare is difficult. Here, he shares his thoughts about performing Shakespeare and reveals his top tips for first-time actors. Ben Crystal: Well, yes … and so it should be! These plays are over 400 years old. They contain cultural gags and references that are completely obscure to us. But they’re also hard to perform because Shakespeare was so darned good at tapping into the human heart – so, as an actor you can’t allow yourself to hold back. If you can’t go to the depths of your soul, explore the extremes of yourself, go to the bad place as Othello or Macbeth, then you shouldn’t be on the stage. You have to think about the big speeches in Shakespeare as the most important things the character has ever said; they need to be spoken with your chest cut open, your heart bare, and with tremendous passion. You need to tear the words from the sky. If you don’t feel like you’ve run a marathon when you’re done, you’re not doing it right. It takes courage to open yourself up to an audience like that, letting them see your insides without desperately trying to show them – it takes practice. About.com: What’s your advice to someone performing Shakespeare for the first time? Ben Crystal: Don’t treat it lightly, but don’t treat it too seriously either. I know that sounds like a contradiction, but it’s similar to the notion of having to act truthfully in a big space, which many actors struggle with. It’s a tricky balance, and Shakespeare asks you to deal with these huge ideas and emotions which all too often lead you into “over-acting” – stay away from big gestures and over-the-top characterizations. A lot of what you need to know is on the page already. So it is tricky, and you have to work at it, but it’s also the best fun in the world. Enjoy it. Learn your lines so well you can go running or do the washing up while saying them. Only once they’re a deep part of you, can you start playing. A lot of people take Shakespeare’s plays far too seriously, and forget that important word: “play”. It’s a game, so enjoy it! You can’t “play” with your fellow actors if you’re trying to remember your lines. About.com: Has Shakespeare left clues to actors in the text? Ben Crystal: Yes, I think so. So does Peter Hall, Patrick Tucker, and a fair few others. Whether or not he actually did is always going to be up for debate. Going back to an original text like the First Folio will help. It’s the first collected edition of Shakespeare’s plays, edited by two of his leading actors. They would have wanted to create a book on how to perform their colleague’s plays, not how to read them – 80% of Elizabethans couldn’t read! So the First Folio is as close to Shakespeare’s intended scripts as we can possibly get. When modern editors of the plays are making a new edition, they go back to the First Folio and remove capitalized letters, change spellings and switch speeches between characters because they’re looking at the plays from a literary point of view, not a dramatic one. Bearing in mind that Shakespeare’s company would perform a new play every day, they simply wouldn’t have had much time to rehearse. Therefore, the theory goes that much of the stage direction is written into the text. Indeed, it is possible to work out where to stand, how fast to speak, and what your character’s state of mind is, all from the text. About.com: How important is it to understand iambic pentameter before performing? Ben Crystal: That depends on how much you respect the writer you’re working with. Most of Shakespeare’s plays are written in that particular rhythmical style, so to ignore it would be foolish. Iambic pentameter is the rhythm of our English language and of our bodies – a line of that poetry has the same rhythm as our heartbeat. A line of iambic pentameter fills the human lung perfectly, so it’s the rhythm of speech. One could say that it’s a very human sounding rhythm and Shakespeare used it to explore what it is to be human. On a slightly less abstract note, iambic pentameter is a line of poetry with ten syllables, and all the even-numbered syllables have a slightly stronger stress. That’s a direction by itself – the stronger stresses usually fall on the important words.