英国拉夫堡大学历史学Essay代写:威尼斯的历史

Home / 未分类 / 英国拉夫堡大学历史学Essay代写:威尼斯的历史

威尼斯是意大利的一个城市,今天最为人所知的是许多水道纵横交错。它已经在无数电影的基础上建立起了浪漫的声誉,并且由于一部惊人的恐怖电影也演变成了一种更黑暗的氛围。这座城市的历史可以追溯到公元六世纪,曾经不仅仅是一个更大的城市:威尼斯曾经是欧洲历史上最伟大的贸易大国之一。威尼斯是丝绸之路贸易路线的欧洲末端,它将货物从中国一路运到,因此是一个国际化的城市,一个真正的大熔炉。威尼斯发展了一个创造神话,它是由逃离特洛伊的人建立的,但它可能是在公元前六世纪形成的,当时意大利难民逃离伦巴第入侵者在威尼斯泻湖的岛屿上扎营。有证据表明在公元前600年达成了解决方案,并且这种情况在7世纪末有了自己的主教。该定居点很快就有一个外部统治者,一个由拜占庭帝国任命的官员,从拉文纳的一个基地紧紧抓住意大利的一部分。在751年,当伦巴第人征服拉文纳时,拜占庭式的dux成为威尼斯总督,由出现在该镇的商人家庭任命。在接下来的几个世纪里,威尼斯发展成为一个贸易中心,很高兴与伊斯兰世界以及与他们保持密切关系的拜占庭帝国做生意。事实上,在992年,威尼斯与帝国获得了特殊的贸易权,以换取再次接受拜占庭主权。这个城市变得更加富裕,并且在1082年获得了独立。然而,他们通过提供使用他们现在可观的海军来保留拜占庭的贸易优势。政府还发展了曾经独裁的总督,由官员和议会补充,并在1144年,威尼斯首先被称为公社。十二世纪,威尼斯和拜占庭帝国的其余部分参与了一系列贸易战,在十三世纪初的事件发生之前,威尼斯有机会建立一个实体贸易帝国:威尼斯同意将运动运送到’圣洁土地,’但是当十字军无力支付时,这种情况就会陷入困境。然后,一个被废的拜占庭皇帝的继承人承诺支付威尼斯,并皈依拉丁基督教,如果他们把他放在王位上。威尼斯支持这一点,但当他被遣返并无法支付/不愿意皈依时,关系恶化,新皇帝被暗杀。十字军随后围攻,俘虏并解雇君士坦丁堡。威尼斯取消了许多宝藏,威尼斯占据了城市的一部分,克里特岛以及包括希腊部分地区在内的大片地区,所有这些都成为了一个大帝国的威尼斯交易前哨基地。威尼斯随后与意大利强大的竞争对手热那亚交战,1380年基奥瓦战役的斗争达到了转折点,限制了热那亚的贸易。其他人也袭击了威尼斯,帝国必须得到保护。与此同时,贵族的力量正在被贵族侵蚀。经过激烈的讨论,在十五世纪,威尼斯人的扩张目标是意大利大陆捕获维琴察,维罗纳,帕多瓦和乌迪内。这个时代,1420-50,可以说是威尼斯财富和权力的高潮。黑人死亡之后人口甚至出现了回升,黑死病经常沿着贸易路线前进。

英国拉夫堡大学历史学Essay代写:威尼斯的历史

Venice is a city in Italy, best known today for the many waterways which criss-cross through it. It has developed a romantic reputation built upon by countless movies, and thanks to one startling horror film has also evolved a darker atmosphere. The city has a history dating from the sixth century, and once wasn’t just a city in a larger state: Venice was once one of the greatest trading powers in European history. Venice was the European end of the Silk Road trade route which moved goods all the way from China, and consequently was a cosmopolitan city, a true melting pot. Venice developed a creation myth that it was founded by people fleeing Troy, but it was probably formed in the sixth century C.E., when Italian refugees fleeing Lombard invaders camped on the islands in the Venice lagoon. There is evidence for a settlement in 600 C.E., and this grew, having its own bishopric by the end of the 7th century. The settlement soon had an outside ruler, an official appointed by the Byzantine Empire, which clung onto a part of Italy from a base in Ravenna. In 751, when the Lombards conquered Ravenna, the Byzantine dux became a Venetian Doge, appointed by the merchant families who had emerged in the town. Over the next few centuries, Venice developed as a trading center, happy to do business with both the Islamic world as well as the Byzantine Empire, with whom they remained close. Indeed, in 992, Venice earned special trading rights with the empire in return for accepting Byzantine sovereignty again. The city grew richer, and independence was gained in 1082. However, they retained trading advantages with Byzantium by offering the use of their, now considerable, navy. The government also developed, the once dictatorial Doge supplemented by officials, then councils, and in 1144, Venice was first called a commune. The twelfth century saw Venice and the remainder of the Byzantine Empire engage in a series of trade wars, before the events of the early thirteenth century gave Venice the chance to establish a physical trading empire: Venice had agreed to transport a crusade to the ‘Holy Land,’ but this became stuck when the crusaders couldn’t pay. Then the heir of a deposed Byzantine emperor promised to pay Venice and convert to Latin Christianity if they put him on the throne. Venice supported this, but when he was returned and unable to pay/unwilling to convert, relationships soured and the new emperor was assassinated. The crusaders then sieged, captured, and sacked Constantinople. Many treasures were removed by Venice, who claimed a part of the city, Crete, and large areas including parts of Greece, all of which became Venetian trading outposts in a large empire. Venice then warred with Genoa, a powerful Italian trading rival, and the struggle reached a turning point with the Battle of Chioggia in 1380, restricting Genoan trade. Others attacked Venice too, and the empire had to be defended. Meanwhile, the Doges’ power was being eroded by the nobility. After heavy discussion, in the fifteenth century, Venetian expansion targeted the Italian mainland with the capture of Vicenza, Verona, Padua, and Udine. This era, 1420–50, was arguably the high point of Venetian wealth and power. The population even sprang back after the Black Death, which often traveled along trade routes.

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注