Cowen的前两组相对直截了当。第一组包括极其优秀的数学学生，他们可以进入十大学校，并愿意长时间工作。第二组是那些喜欢教学的人，不介意相对较低的薪水，并会进行一些研究。 “3.你不适合＃1或＃2。然而你已经从裂缝中爬出而不是陷入其中。你做了不同的事情，仍然设法让你的方式做研究，虽然是另一种。你。我总觉得自己会成为这个职业的局外人，也许你会得不到回报。我认为我的建议与Cowen博士的建议大不相同。一方面，他完成了经济学博士学位，并且有一个漂亮的成功的职业生涯。我的情况有很大不同;我从经济学博士学位转到工商管理博士学位。我的经济学和经济学时的经济学一样多，除了我现在工作时间更短，收入更高。所以我相信我更倾向于劝阻人们进入经济学而不是考恩博士。不用说，当我读到考恩的建议时，我感到很惊讶。我一直希望落入＃3阵营，但他是对的 – 在经济学方面，做起来非常非常困难。我无法强调没有计划的重要性B.一旦你进入博士学位。计划，每个人都非常聪明和有才华，每个人至少都是中等程度的努力工作（大多数人可以被描述为工作狂）。可悲的是，实现＃3的机会相当低。你需要一些运气，或许除了数学之外还有一两种特殊技能……如果你有一个明确定义的“B计划”你在＃3取得成功的机会会减少吗？完全投入是非常重要的。“我所看到的最重要的因素决定了某人是否完成了他们的学位是其他有利可图的选择的可用性。如果你无处可去，那么你就会少得多当事情变得非常艰难时（他们会），可能会说“要解决这个问题，我要离开！”离开我所在的经济学博士课程的人们（罗切斯特大学 – 十大名人之一） Cowen博士讨论过的项目并不比那些留下来的人更好或更不明智。但是，在大多数情况下，他们是那些拥有最佳外部选择的人。机会成本是研究生职业生涯的死亡。我同意学术界作为一种状态游戏的想法远远超出了经济学的范畴;从商业学校来看，这与我所看到的完全不同。我认为经济学博士学位对很多人来说是一个了不起的选择。你潜入，我想你需要问问自己，被描述为成功的人是否听起来像哟ü。如果他们不这样做，您可能想要考虑不同的努力。
Cowen’s first two groups are relatively straight-forward. The first group includes exceptionally strong students at math who can get into top-ten schools and are willing to work long hours. The second group is those who enjoy teaching, do not mind the relatively low pay and will perform a little research. “3. You do not fit either #1 or #2. Yet you have climbed out of the cracks rather than falling into them. You do something different and still have managed to make your way doing research, albeit of a different kind. You will always feel like an outsider in the profession and perhaps you will be under-rewarded. I thought my advice would be a great deal different that Dr. Cowen’s. For one thing, he completed his Ph.D. in Economics and has a pretty successful career at it. My situation is a great deal different; I transferred from doing a Ph.D. in Economics to a Ph.D. in Business Administration. I do just as much economics as I did when I was in Economics, except I now work shorter hours and get paid a great deal more. So I believe I’m more likely to discourage people from going into Economics than Dr. Cowen. Needless to say, I was surprised when I read Cowen’s advice. I always hoped to fall into the #3 camp, but he’s correct – in economics, it’s very, very tough to do. I can’t stress enough the importance of not having a plan B. Once you get into a Ph.D. program, everyone is very bright and talented and everyone is at least moderately hard working (and most could be described as workaholics). Sadly, the chance of achieving #3 is fairly low. You need some luck and perhaps one or two special skills other than math… if you have a clearly defined “Plan B” your chance of succeeding at #3 diminishes? It is important to be fully committed.” The most important factor I’ve seen that determines whether or not someone completes their degree is the availability of other lucrative options. If you’ve got nowhere else to go, you’re a lot less likely to say “to heck with this, I’m leaving!” when things get really tough (and they will). The people that left the Economics Ph.D. program I was in (University of Rochester – one of those Top Ten programs Dr. Cowen discusses) weren’t any more or less bright than those who stayed. But, for the most part, they were the ones with the best external options. Opportunity costs are the death of graduate school careers. I would agree with all that as well. The idea of academia as a status game goes well beyond Economics; it’s no different at business schools, from what I’ve seen. I think an Economics Ph.D. is a terrific option for many people. But before you dive in, I think you need to ask yourself if the people described as succeeding at it sound like you. If they don’t, you might want to consider a different endeavor.