1996年专栏作家约翰·蒂尔尼（John Tierney）在纽约时报杂志的一篇文章中提到“回收是垃圾”时，关于回收利益的争议不断增加。“强制回收计划，”他写道，“……主要为少数群体提供短期利益 – 政治家，公共关系顾问，环保组织和废物处理公司 – 同时从真正的社会和环境问题转移资金。回收可能是现代美国最浪费的活动……“环境组织很快就Tierney对回收的好处提出异议，尤其是关于回收利用能源消耗和污染加倍，而纳税人花费比处理普通旧垃圾更多钱的说法。自然资源保护委员会和环境保护委员会是美国最具影响力的两个环保组织，每个组织都发布了详细报告回收利益的报告，并展示了市政回收计划如何减少污染和使用原始资源，同时减少了大量的垃圾和需求对于垃圾填埋场而言 – 所有这些都比常规垃圾收集和处置的成本更低，而不是更多。
In 1996, when columnist John Tierney mentioned in an article in the New York Times magazine that “recycling is rubbish”, the controversy over recycling interests continued to increase. “The mandatory recycling program,” he wrote, “…mainly provides short-term benefits for minorities – politicians, public relations consultants, environmental organizations and waste disposal companies – while transferring funds from real social and environmental issues. Recycling may be the most wasteful activity in modern America… “Environmental organizations quickly disagreed Tierney about the benefits of recycling, especially with regard to recycling energy consumption and pollution, and taxpayers spend more than ordinary waste. More money. The Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Protection Committee are the two most influential environmental organizations in the United States. Each organization publishes a detailed report on recycling benefits and shows how municipal recycling programs reduce pollution and use raw resources while reducing A lot of waste and demand for landfills – all of which are cheaper than regular garbage collection and disposal, not more.