然而，一些白人因废除奴隶制和南方邦联的失败而感到不安，创造了新的集体和组织 – 如三K党和白人联盟 – 以维持白人的特权社会地位，并以暴力惩罚非洲裔美国人没有完全服从旧的社会秩序。在战争后的重建期间，几个南方各州立即采取措施，确保非洲裔美国人仍然受雇主的约束。他们以前的主人仍然可能因为不服从而被监禁，如果他们试图逃跑则被捕，等等。新获得的奴隶也面临其他严重的侵犯民权的行为。制定种族隔离和以其他方式限制非裔美国人权利的法律很快被称为“吉姆克劳法律”。联邦政府根据第十四修正案对吉姆克劳法律作出回应，如果最高法院实际执行该修正案，该修正案将禁止一切形式的偏见歧视。然而，在这些歧视性法律，惯例和传统中，美国最高法院一贯拒绝保护非洲裔美国人的权利。 1883年，它甚至打击了1875年的联邦民权 – 如果执行，将在89年前结束吉姆·克劳。在美国内战之后的半个世纪里，吉姆克劳法律统治了美国南部 – 但他们不会永远统治。从最高法院的一项重要裁决开始，Guinn诉美国案（1915年），最高法院开始废除种族隔离法。
However, some white people are uneasy about the abolition of slavery and the failure of the Confederacy, creating new collectives and organizations – such as the KKK and the White Alliance – to maintain the privileged social status of whites and punish African Americans with violence. Fully obey the old social order. During the post-war reconstruction period, several southern states took immediate steps to ensure that African Americans were still bound by employers. Their former owners may still be imprisoned for disobedience, arrested if they try to escape, and so on. The newly acquired slaves also face other serious violations of civil rights. The law establishing apartheid and otherwise restricting the rights of African Americans was quickly called the “Jim Crow Law”. The Federal Government responded to the Jim Crow law under the Fourteenth Amendment, which would prohibit all forms of prejudice discrimination if the Supreme Court actually implemented the amendment. However, in these discriminatory laws, practices and traditions, the US Supreme Court has consistently refused to protect the rights of African Americans. In 1883, it even hit the federal civil rights of 1875 – if implemented, will end Jim Crow 89 years ago. In the half century after the American Civil War, Jim Crow ruled the southern United States – but they would not rule forever. Beginning with an important ruling of the Supreme Court, Guinn v. United States (1915), the Supreme Court began abolishing the apartheid law.