在哈佛式引用中使用的缩写和符号

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Abbreviations can be used when referencing. It is important to use commonly accepted abbreviations which will likely be easily understood.在论文代写中引用时可以使用缩写。 使用可能容易理解的普遍接受的缩写非常重要。这涉及到Arts代写,Finance代写,Law代写,HRM代写等几乎所有科目类型的写作。

Meaning and Purpose 释意和目的

&  ‘and’ or ‘&’

For in-text references, use ‘and’ between names in the text and ‘&’ between names in brackets. Only use ‘&’ between authors’ names in the reference list.

对于正文内引用,在文本名称和括号内名称之间使用’&’使用’and’。 只能在参考列表中的作者姓名之间使用’&’。

app.   ‘appendix’ 附录

ed. / eds.  ed. = ‘editor’ and eds. = ‘editors’ 编辑者

edn.   ‘edition’ 编辑
If a resource has several editions, write the number of the edition you have used. First editions do not say ‘first edition’, but second and subsequent editions will tell you which edition it is.
Important: this is not same as the printing or reprinting date.如果某个资源有多个版本,请编写您使用的版本号。 第一版不会说’第一版’,但第二版和后续版本会告诉你它是哪个版本。
重要提示:这与出印或重印日期不同。

et al  and others’ 其他的

This is used only with in-text citations when there are four or more authors. All authors will need to be included in the reference list.当有四位或更多作者时,这仅用于在文本中的引用。 所有作者都需要包含在参考列表中。

min. ‘minute’ 起止时间

Used for audio-visual sources that have been used within a written document to indicate the start of the information.用于已在书面文档中使用的视听资源来指示信息的开始。

n.d  ‘no date’ 无日期

Where a publication date or copyright date cannot be located on a resource, insert ‘n.d.’ in the place.如果发布日期或版权日期无法在资源上找到,请在该地点插入“n.d.”。

n.p. ‘no publication’ 未出版

Resources within no place of publication will you ‘n.p’ in its place within the reference. 没有出版地点的资源将在参考文献中的位置“n.p”。

p/pp,  p. = ‘page’ and pp. = ‘more than one page’ 大于一页

The following examples illustrate the use of page numbers in the Harvard referencing style以下示例说明了哈佛引用样式中页码的使:

One page (Smith 2009, p. 4)
Pages in sequence (Smith 2009, pp. 25-26)
Pages not in sequence (Smith 2009, pp. 1, 4 & 6)
Pages from a website (Smith 2009)

vol. ‘volume’ 册

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